SURVEILLANCE

Surveillance systems are essential to monitor changes in time and space in the occurrence of Infectious Diseases (IDs) and Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR).

They can inform the need for, and the effectiveness of, interventions to prevent and control the spread of IDs and AMR.

Surveillance systems for IDs and AMR are unique because they have the potential to monitor cases in animals and humans, and could potentially include a component of monitoring for the presence of the pathogen or of enabling conditions for disease, intervention, or prevention in the environment. However, most existing surveillance systems do not integrate perspectives from across the animal, human, environmental health, and social sciences by incorporating One Health principles into ID and AMR surveillance systems design.